The left panel is the time series of TGIM (Taiwan Global Ionosphere Map) TEC near Japan (35N, 140E), Taipei (22.5N, 120E), Beijing (40N, 115E), Chungking (27.5N, 110E), Sumatra (0N, 100E), Nepal (27.5N 85E) and Los Angeles (35N, 120W) in past 10 days. The red curve is the observed TEC (O), denoted. The two dim gray curves are the associated upper bound (UB) and lower bound (LB). The light gray curve is the 15 days median before the observation day. The red and blue shaded areas denote the differences of O-UB and LB-O, respectively. The top and bottom right panels are the cumulative times of the red and blue shaded in 12 hours, respectively [Nishihashi et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2010; Su et al., 2013].